Создание проводника файлов с помощью Python tkinter

Я делаю простой файловый менеджер с tkinter Python.
Это репозиторий файлов на github.
Я знаю, что это довольно длинный код, и на его написание ушло много времени, но я каким-то образом добавил комментарии.
И я хочу, чтобы кто-нибудь протестировал мой код.
Также здесь нет дополнительных механизмов, и это только для галочки. Во-вторых, можете ли вы подсказать, как мне показать все диски вместо F: диск (так как я использовал его для тестирования. Заранее благодарим вас за любую помощь.

import tkinter as tk
from os import listdir
from os.path import isdir
from tkinter import messagebox

from PIL import ImageTk, Image

# globals
h = []
value = 0
m = 0
b, a, f, q, type, r= "", "", "", "", "", ""
g = 1
l = 1
photo = ""
new_name = 0
row = ""
image = ""
text = ""
# modifying button for files and folders
class modified_button(tk.Button):
    def __init__(self, root, type=None, *args, **kw):
        global h, value, m, b
        tk.Button.__init__(self, root, *args, **kw)
        self.type = type
        self.root = root  # root of the given button widget
        if value == 0:
            for i in range(len(x.lst)):
                h.append(tk.Button(bg="#ffffff"))  # creating a list of buttons when the first button is created
        h.insert(value, self)  # updating the list with newly created buttons
        value += 1  # increasing the value so that list is not created again
        self.x = ""
        self.bind("<Enter>", lambda event, a="enter": self.changebg(a,
                                                                    event))  # changing the color of the button when it is under cursor
        self.bind("<Leave>", lambda event, a="leave": self.changebg(a,
                                                                    event))  # changing the color of the button when the cursor leaves it
        if type == "folder" or type == "file":  # if the button is of a file or a folder
            self.bind("<Button 1>",
                      lambda event, a="click": self.changebg(a, event))  # binding the click and rightclick
            self.bind("<Button-3>", lambda event, a="right-click": self.changebg(a, event))

    def changebg(self, a, event):
        global g, l, q,type
        if self["bg"] != "#80bfff" and a == "leave" and l != 0:  # if the bg of the color is not dark blue change the bg to white
            self.config(bg="#ffffff")
        if self["bg"] != "#80bfff" and a == "enter" and g != 0 and l != 0:  # same as above
            self.config(bg="#cce6ff")
        if self["bg"] != "#80bfff" and a == "click" and l != 0:  # if the user has clicked then changing the bg
            for ech in h:
                if type == "renaming":
                    self.rename()
                if ech["bg"] == "#80bfff":  # checking if any other button has dark blue bg
                    ech.config(bg="#ffffff")  # if it has then change it to light blue
            self.config(bg="#80bfff")  # lastly changing the bg to dark blue
        if self.type != "other":
            if self["bg"] == "#80bfff" and a == "right-click" and l != 0:
                # checking if the button is clicked before or not
                # creating menu for rightclick
                self.m = tk.Menu(self.root, tearoff=0)
                self.m.add_command(label="Cut  ", command=lambda a=self, b="cut": self.copy_paste(b, a))
                self.m.add_command(label="Copy ", command=lambda a=self, b="copy": self.copy_paste(b, a))
                if self.type == "folder":  # if the button is of a folder then only add the option to paste in it
                    self.m.add_command(label="Paste ", command=lambda a=self, b="paste": self.copy_paste(b, a))
                else:
                    pass
                self.m.add_separator()
                self.m.add_command(label="Delete")
                self.m.add_command(label="Rename", command=lambda a=self, b="rename": self.copy_paste(b, a))
                try:
                    self.m.tk_popup(event.x_root, event.y_root)
                finally:
                    self.m.grab_release()

    def copy_paste(self, command, file):
        global b, a, g, l, q,type,r,photo,row,image,text,new_name
        if self.type != "other":
            if command == "cut":  # if the user has selected to cut the file
                self.u = "{0}/{1}".format(x.z, file["text"])
                a = "cut"
                b = self.u

            if command == "copy":  # if the user has selected to copy the file
                self.u = "{0}/{1}".format(x.z, file["text"])
                a = "copy"
                b = self.u
            if command == "paste":  # if the user has selected to paste the file
                try:
                    file[0].isalpha()
                    if file == x.z:
                        self.x = file
                    else:
                        self.x = "{0}/{1}".format(x.z, file)  # creating the path to paste
                except:
                    self.x = "{0}/{1}".format(x.z, file["text"])
                if a == "copy":
                    # sh.copy(b,self.x)
                    pass
                if a == "cut":
                    # sh.move(b,self.x)
                    pass
            if command == "rename":  # renaming file
                row = self.grid_info()["row"]
                image = self["image"]
                text = self["text"]
                type = "renaming"
                self.grid_forget()
                r = tk.Frame(master=self.root, width=1750, height=10, bg="#ffffff")
                photo = tk.Label(master=r, image=x.p1)
                photo.grid(row=0, column=0)
                new_name = tk.Entry(master=r, width=30)
                new_name.grid(row=0, column=1)
                r.grid(column=0, row=row, sticky="w")
                new_name.bind("<Return>", lambda event: self.rename())
            if command == "delete":
                # remove(b)
                pass

    def rename(self):
        # exact renaming method is not here
        global r,new_name,text,row,type
        print(r,2,new_name,3,text,4,row)
        r.grid_forget()
        button = modified_button(self.root, type=type, image=image, bg="#ffffff", text=new_name.get(), width=750,
                                 height=13,
                                 compound="left",
                                 anchor="w",
                                 borderwidth=0)
        button.bind("<Double 1>", lambda event, a=text: x.create_dirlst(a))
        if button["text"] == "":
            button["text"] = text
        button.grid(column=0, row=row)
        type = ""


class explorer(tk.Frame):
    def __init__(self, root, *args, **kwargs):
        global f
        tk.Frame.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)
        # creating the basics and handlers
        self.window = root
        self.lst = []
        self.starting_path = "F:"
        self.z = " "
        self.last_search = ""
        self.val = [0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0]
        self.p1 = ImageTk.PhotoImage(file="Folder.png")
        self.p2 = ImageTk.PhotoImage(file="file.png")
        self.p3 = ImageTk.PhotoImage(Image.open("Untitled-1.png").resize((20, 20), Image.ANTIALIAS))
        self.p4 = ImageTk.PhotoImage(Image.open("Untitled-2.png").resize((20, 20), Image.ANTIALIAS))
        self.no_of_files = 0
        self.no_of_folders = 0
        self.last_opened_folder = ""

    def create_basics(self, a):
        if self.val[0] == 0:  # if this is first time then pass
            pass
        else:  # if this not the first time then delete all the old widgets
            self.left.pack_forget()
            self.up.pack_forget()
            self.parent_frame.pack_forget()
            self.down.pack_forget()
        # after deleting the old widgets creating new one
        self.left = tk.Frame(self.window, bg="#ffffff", width=10)
        self.left.pack(side="left", fill="y")
        self.up = tk.Frame(master=self.window, height=10, width=10)
        self.navigation_buttons = tk.Frame(self.up)
        self.back_button = modified_button(self.navigation_buttons, type="other", image=self.p3, borderwidth=0,
                                           bg="#ffffff")
        self.forward_button = modified_button(self.navigation_buttons, type="other", image=self.p4, borderwidth=0,
                                              bg="#ffffff")
        self.back_button.grid(row=0, column=0)
        self.back_button.bind("<Button-1>", lambda event, command="back": self.navigation(event, command))
        self.forward_button.grid(row=0, column=1)
        self.forward_button.bind("<Button-1>", lambda event, command="next": self.navigation(event, command))
        self.navigation_buttons.pack(side="left", fill="y")
        self.search = tk.Entry(master=self.up)
        if self.last_search == "":
            self.search.insert(tk.END, "Search")
        else:
            self.search.insert(tk.END, self.last_search)
        self.search.bind("<Button-1>", lambda event, a="click": explorer.modify_search(self, a, event))
        self.search.bind("<Leave>", lambda event, a="leave": explorer.modify_search(self, a, event))
        self.search.bind("<Return>", lambda event, a="enter": explorer.modify_search(self, a, event))
        self.search.bind("<BackSpace>", lambda event, a="Backspace": explorer.modify_search(self, a, event))
        self.search.pack(side="right", fill="y")
        self.path = tk.Frame(self.up, bg="#ffffff")
        self.path.pack(fill="both", expand=1)
        self.up.pack(fill="x")
        self.parent_frame = tk.Frame(self.window)
        self.canvas = tk.Canvas(self.parent_frame, bg="#ffffff")
        self.canvas.pack(side="left", fill="both", expand=1)
        self.scrollbar = tk.Scrollbar(self.parent_frame, orient="vertical", command=self.canvas.yview)
        self.scrollbar.pack(side="right", fill="y")
        self.canvas.configure(yscrollcommand=self.scrollbar.set)
        self.canvas.bind("<Configure>", lambda event: self.canvas.configure(scrollregion=self.canvas.bbox("all")))
        self.frame = tk.Frame(self.canvas)
        self.canvas.create_window((0, 0), window=self.frame)
        self.parent_frame.pack(fill="both", expand=1)
        self.down = tk.Frame(self.window, width=100, borderwidth=1, bg="#444444")
        self.down.pack(anchor="w")
        self.canvas.bind("<Button-3>", lambda event: self.mod_canvas(event))
        if a == "R":
            self.val[5] = 0
            explorer.create_folder(self)

    def modify_search(self, a, event):  # modifying the search widget
        if self.search.get() == "" and a == "leave" and self.val[3] != 0 and self.val[
            6] == 0:  # if the method is called for first time or after changing the directory
            self.search.insert(tk.END, "Search")

        if a == "click" and self.search.get() == "Search" and self.val[
            3] != 0:  # if the user has clicked the widget to type
            self.search.delete(0, tk.END)
            self.val[6] = 1
        if a == "enter" and self.search.get() != "" and self.search.get() != "Search":  # if the user has pressed enter to search
            m = self.lst  # first saving the list
            self.lst = []  # emptying the list
            for x in m:
                if self.search.get().lower() == x[0:len(
                        self.search.get())].lower():  # sortin all the matches of the search

                    self.lst.append(x)  # updating self.lst
                    self.val[4] += 1  # updating self.val[4] to identify is any file matches or not
            print(self.val[4])
            if self.val[4] == 0:  # if no file matches raise error
                messagebox.showwarning('Error', "Can't find the specified file.")
            else:  # if the files are found creating the new sest of buttons with modified self.lst
                self.last_search = self.search.get()
                self.no_of_files = 0
                self.no_of_folders = 0
                self.create_basics("")
                self.create_folder()
                self.val[4] = 0

        if a == "Backspace":
            if self.search.get() == "Search":
                self.search.delete(0, tk.END)
                self.val[3] = 0
            else:
                pass

    def navigation(self, event, command):
        global f
        if command == "back":  # if the user has pressed back
            try:
                self.last_opened_folder = f  # updating the last_opened_folder for later use
                f = self.z[:len(f) - f[::-1].index("/") - 1]  # obtaining the upper directory
            except:
                pass
            # doing basic things as before to create new
            self.lst = list(f for f in listdir(f) if f[0].isalpha())
            self.starting_path = f
            self.no_of_files = 0
            self.no_of_folders = 0
            self.create_basics("")
            self.create_folder()
        if command == "next":
            try:  # if the user has clicked next button
                self.lst = list(f for f in listdir(self.last_opened_folder) if
                                f[0].isalpha())  # using the last_opened_folder from before
            except:
                pass
            f = self.last_opened_folder
            self.starting_path = self.last_opened_folder
            self.no_of_files = 0
            self.no_of_folders = 0
            self.create_basics("")
            self.create_folder()

    def show_no_of_files(self):
        # creating widgets to show no. of files and folders
        self.files = tk.Label(master=self.down,
                              text=f"No. of files: {self.no_of_files}, No. of folders: {self.no_of_folders}",
                              borderwidth=1)
        self.files.pack(fill="x", expand=1)

    def create_dirlst(self, a):
        global f
        self.lst = []
        # here self.z is the clicked icon or the file/folder user wants to open
        if self.val[0] == 0:  # if this method is called first time then initialise self.z
            self.z = self.starting_path
            self.val[2] += 1
        if self.val[0] != 0 and self.val[
            2] == 1:  # if this method is not called for the first time then modifying self.z
            self.z = "{0}/{1}".format(self.starting_path, a)
        if isdir(self.z) == False and self.val[0] != 0:  # if self.z is not a folder then raise error
            #exact opening file method is not here
            messagebox.showwarning('Open Error', "Can't open this file.")
            self.val[1] += 1
        if self.val[0] != 0 and isdir(self.z):  # if the clicked icon is folder
            self.starting_path = "{0}/{1}".format(self.starting_path, a)
            self.lst = list(f for f in listdir(self.starting_path) if f[0].isalpha())
            self.no_of_files = 0
            self.no_of_folders = 0
            self.create_basics("")
            self.create_folder()
            self.val[5] = 1

            if self.val[1] != 0:  # setting val[1] to zero so that the show_no_of_files method can be called later
                self.val[1] = 0
        f = self.z
        if self.val[0] == 0:  # creating the list if the method is called for first time
            self.lst = list(f for f in listdir(self.starting_path) if f[0].isalpha() and f[0] != "$")

    def create_folder(self):
        for ech in self.lst:  # iterating through the list of dir and files
            if isdir("{0}/{1}".format(self.starting_path, ech)):  # if ech is a folder
                button = modified_button(self.frame, type="folder", image=self.p1, bg="#ffffff", text=ech, width=750,
                                         height=13,
                                         compound="left",
                                         anchor="w",
                                         borderwidth=0)
                button.bind("<Double 1>", lambda event, a=ech: self.create_dirlst(a))
                button.grid(column=0, row=self.lst.index(ech))
                if self.val[5] != 0:
                    self.no_of_folders += 1  # incrementing self.no_of_folders

            else:
                button = modified_button(self.frame, type="file", image=self.p2, bg="#ffffff", text=ech, width=750,
                                         height=13,
                                         compound="left",
                                         anchor="w",
                                         borderwidth=0)
                button.bind("<Double 1>", lambda event, a=ech: self.create_dirlst(a))
                button.grid(column=0, row=self.lst.index(ech))
                if self.val[5] != 0:
                    self.no_of_files += 1
        self.val[0] += 1
        if self.val[8] != 0:
            q = self.starting_path.split("/")
            for g in q:
                self.path_buttons = modified_button(self.path, type="other", text=g, bg="#ffffff", borderwidth=0)
                self.path_buttons.grid(row=0, column=q.index(g), padx=4)
                self.path_buttons.bind("<Button-1>", lambda event, r=g: self.updating_path(r))
        if self.val[1] == 0:
            self.show_no_of_files()

    def updating_path(self, k):
        if self.starting_path == k:
            pass
        else:
            self.starting_path = self.starting_path[:self.starting_path.index(k) + len(k)]
        self.lst = list(f for f in listdir(self.starting_path) if f[0].isalpha())
        self.create_basics("")
        self.create_folder()

    def mod_canvas(self,
                   event):  # modifying the canvas at the right side to paste in the current directory and also for refreshing
        self.menu = tk.Menu(self.canvas, tearoff=0)
        self.menu.add_command(label="Refresh            ", command=lambda a="R": explorer.create_basics(self, a))
        self.menu.add_command(label="Paste                ",
                              command=lambda a="paste", b=self.z: modified_button.copy_paste(self, a, b))
        try:
            self.menu.tk_popup(event.x_root, event.y_root)
        finally:
            self.menu.grab_release()


if __name__ == "__main__":  # creating basic window
    window = tk.Tk()
    window.geometry("900x600")
    window.title("Door Explorer 1.0")
    window.iconbitmap("icon1.ico")
    x = explorer(window)
    x.create_basics("")
    x.create_dirlst(x.starting_path)
    x.create_folder()
    window.mainloop()

1 ответ
1

Примечание: у меня нет опыта работы с tkinter, так что это будет обзор общего стиля кода. Я приветствую всех, кто имеет опыт работы с tkinter а также добавить свой обзор!


Именование классов

Имена классов должны быть в PascalCase, нет snake_case.

modified_button -> ModifiedButton
explorer -> Explorer

Константы

В вашем коде разбросаны строки шестнадцатеричных значений и конкретные строки, представляющие события. Вы должны определить их в верхней части файла и просто ссылаться на них во всем коде. Одна опечатка, например "#80bfff" to "#08bfff", заставит вас искать в своем коде то место, где вы могли это ошибиться.

DARK_BLUE = "#80bfff"
WHITE = "#ffffff"
...

Комментарии

На мой взгляд, ваши комментарии усложняют чтение этого кода в 10 раз.

if self.type == "folder":  # if the button is of a folder

Вам действительно нужен этот комментарий? Комментарии должны рассказывать пользователю, как работает определенная часть кода, ваши намерения в отношении этой части, а также объяснять алгоритмический фрагмент кода, который может сбивать с толку.

Зарезервированные имена

type – это зарезервированное имя (функция) в python, поэтому вы должны переименовать его во что-то вроде file_type, или в том же духе.

Раз уж мы говорим об именах переменных, что это такое?

# globals
h = []
value = 0
m = 0
b, a, f, q, type, r= "", "", "", "", "", ""
g = 1
l = 1

Хотя вы говорите, что они глобальные, я не имею ни малейшего представления о том, что они представляют. И просматривая ваш код, я все еще в замешательстве. Переменные должны быть репрезентативными для данных, которые они хранят.

Чистая логика

Вместо

if self.val[0] == 0:  # if this is first time then pass
    pass
else:  # if this not the first time then delete all the old widgets
    self.left.pack_forget()
    self.up.pack_forget()
    self.parent_frame.pack_forget()
    self.down.pack_forget()

Как насчет проверки, если значение не 0?

if self.val[0] != 0:
    self.left.pack_forget()
    self.up.pack_forget()
    self.parent_frame.pack_forget()
    self.down.pack_forget()

Та же концепция может быть применена к множеству других мест в вашем коде.

  • Спасибо за ответ. Я постараюсь избежать этих случаев в моем следующем проекте, который, возможно, не относится к tkinter.

    – Адитья Сингх

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